On the ground that in the Rigvedic period the year began with the summer solstice when the sun was in conjunction with the lunar mansion Phalguni, Tilak and Jacobi assigned that work to 4,000 B.C.; while others, having regard to the extraordinary similarities of the Avestan and Vedic languages and the probability that the Avesta is not very ancient, place it nearly three thousand years later (about 1,200 B.C.). But it may now be hoped that archaeology will one day enable students to fix the chronology of the Vedic literature with greater degree of certainty. To facilitate the co-ordination of the data of Archaeology with literary evidence I propose to discuss in this paper some of the passages in the Vedic literature that throw light on the early history of the Indus valley. Muir’s Original Sanskrit Texts and Macdonell and Keith’s Vedic Index make such a discussion easier.
A broad division between an earlier and a later phase may be distinguished in the Vedic period, the former represented by the Rigveda Samhita and the latter by the Yajurveda Samhitas, the Brahmanas and the Sutras. Modern scholars also recognise different chronological strata i